Jours fériés : définition

Les 11 fêtes légales (jours fériés) listées par le Code du travail sont les suivantes :

  • 1er janvier,
  • Lundi de Pâques,
  • 1er mai,
  • 8 mai,
  • Ascension,
  • Lundi de Pentecôte,
  • 14 juillet,
  • 15 août,
  • 1er novembre,
  • 11 novembre,
  • 25 décembre.

Parmi tous ces jours fériés, seul le 1er mai donne obligatoirement droit au repos rémunéré pour le salarié. Le Code du travail prévoit que le 1er mai est férié ET chômé. Il ne peut être une cause de réduction du salaire, il doit donc être payé comme si vous étiez venu travailler.

Pour les autres jours fériés, si votre entreprise est ouverte, ce sont des jours ouvrés pendant lesquels vous devez travailler normalement.

Toutefois, vérifiez dans votre contrat de travail, votre Convention Collective et renseignez vous sur l’usage dans votre entreprise. Il peut être inscrit quelque part que les jours fériés sont chômés et payés s’ils tombent un jour travaillé.

Les jours fériés travaillés sont-ils payés double ?

Pas forcément ! Les jours fériés n’étant pas obligatoirement chômés, ils peuvent ne donner droit, lorsqu’ils sont travaillés, qu’au paiement du salaire normal. Par contre, il peut exister des dispositions conventionnelles plus favorables. Vérifiez donc bien la Convention Collective dont vous dépendez et dont le nom figure sur votre fiche de paie.

BON A SAVOIR : les heures travaillées le 1er mai sont payées double. Les salariés travaillant de nuit en partie le 1er mai et le lendemain ou la veille bénéficient du doublement du salaire.

Si je ne travaille pas un jour férié, suis-je payé(e) ?

1er cas : le jour férié chômé tombe un jour où vous auriez dû normalement travailler :

  • Pour le 1er mai, le salaire est maintenu quelque soit l’ancienneté du salarié. Cette journée ne peut entraîner de perte de salaire. Les heures supplémentaires habituellement effectuées doivent être payées avec majoration de salaire.
  • Pour les autres jours fériés, cela n’a aucune incidence sur la rémunération tant que vous avez au moins 3 mois d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise. En revanche, les salariés travaillant à domicile, les salariés saisonniers et les salariés intermittents ne sont pas rémunérés, sauf si un accord collectif ou un usage le prévoit. Les salariés temporaires ont droit au paiement des jours fériés indépendamment de leur ancienneté si les salariés de l’entreprise en bénéficient.

2ème cas : le jour férié chômé tombe un jour de repos habituel dans l’entreprise :

  • cela n’aura pas d’incidence sur votre salaire et n’ouvrira pas droit à un repos complémentaire. Cependant une Convention Collective ou un accord peuvent prévoir des dispositions plus favorables.

Si vous vous octroyez une journée de congé sur le jour férié, sans l’accord de votre employeur, celui-ci sera en droit de vous retenir une journée de salaire, correspondant à la journée indûment chômée.

Que se passe-t-il si un jour férié tombe pendant mes congés payés ?

Si le jour férié est travaillé, il est considéré comme un jour ouvrable et sera décompté de vos congés payés.

En revanche, s’il s’agit d’un jour férié qui est chômé dans l’entreprise, il ne sera pas considéré comme un jour ouvrable et ne sera pas décompté de vos congés. Il en sera de même s’il tombe un jour de la semaine où vous ne travaillez pas normalement.

Par exemple : vous serez en congé durant la semaine du 10 au 16 juillet 2017. Le 14 juillet est habituellement chômé dans votre entreprise. Le 14 juillet tombant un vendredi (jour habituellement travaillé dans l’entreprise), il n’est pas comptabilisé. Vous poserez alors 5 jours de congés au lieu de 6.

Mon employeur peut-il me demander de récupérer des heures non travaillées en raison du chômage d’un jour férié ?

Absolument pas. Votre employeur ne peut pas vous demander de récupérer les heures de travail pour cause de jours fériés non travaillés.

De votre côté, vous ne pouvez pas non plus récupérer un jour férié sous prétexte qu’il est tombé un jour non travaillé. Toutefois, il peut exister des dispositions conventionnelles plus favorables.

Je veux faire le pont, mon employeur peut-il refuser ?

L’employeur peut vous accorder un pont. En d’autres termes, le chômage d’un ou deux jours compris entre un jour férié et un jour de repos hebdomadaire.

Toutefois, il n’est pas obligé de vous l’accorder, sauf si des dispositions conventionnelles le prévoient.

En revanche, il peut vous imposer un pont, à condition de consulter au préalable les représentants du personnel s’ils existent. Il devra aussi afficher la modification et en transmettre une copie à l’inspection du travail.

BON A SAVOIR : le paiement de la journée de pont n’est pas obligatoire, sauf s’il résulte de la convention collective ou d’un usage.
De plus, les heures perdues à la suite d’un pont accordé au salarié peuvent être récupérées. Par conséquent le salarié est amené à effectuer un autre jour les heures de travail perdues, dans les 12 mois précédant ou suivant leur perte. La décision de récupérer le pont est prise par l’employeur et s’impose aux salariés.

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